Part I – General Medical Physics

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Contents

Exam Description

Part I – General Medical Physics is intended to test the general knowledge of the basic principles of medical physics. These are the principles with which all medical physicists should be familiar, regardless of their specialization. Questions will be restricted to basic principles only. Detailed questions appear in the appropriate Part II examinations.

The questions in the examination are apportioned by topic as follows.

Examination Content Outline

Radiological Physics 20%
Radiation Detection and Measurement 15%
Biology and Radiobiology 5%
Radiation Protection 15%
Imaging and Other Diagnostic Studies 17%
Principles of Therapy 15%
Anatomy, Physiology, and Medical Science 7%
Computers 6%

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Radiological Physics (20%)

  1. Radiological Physics Units
    • fundamental units
    • derived units
    • electrical units
    • radiation units
  2. Atomic and Nuclear Structure
    • Bohr model
    • shell structure
    • periodic table
    • electron binding energy
    • ionization and excitation
    • elementary particles
    • nuclear structure
    • nuclear binding energy
    • mass-energy equivalence
  3. Electromagnetic Radiation
    • frequency
    • wavelength
    • energy
    • electromagnetic spectrum
    • properties of non-ionizing radiation
    • properties of ionizing radiation
    • infrared radiation
    • LASERs
    • microwaves
  4. Ultrasound
    • speed in different media
    • properties of ultrasound
  5. Radioactivity
    • decay constant
    • half-life
    • mathematics of decay
    • equilibrium
    • exposure rate constant
    • dose rate near a point source
    • isotope production
    • modes of decay
      1. alpha
      2. beta+/beta-
      3. electron capture
    • internal conversion
    • isometric conversion
    • fission
  6. Production of X-Rays
    • basic x-ray circuits
    • spectra
    • factors affecting spectra
    • cathode
    • anode
    • rectification
    • filtration
    • quality
    • half-value layer (HVL)
    • transformers
    • characteristic and Bremsstrahlung x-rays
    • angular distribution vs energy
  7. Interaction of Photons with matter
    • attenuation
    • attenuation coefficients
    • absorption
    • photoelectric absorption
    • Compton scatter
    • coherent scatter
    • pair production
    • relative importance of different interactions at different energies and in different media
  8. Interactions of Charged Particles with Matter
    • collisional
    • radiative
    • range
    • stopping power
    • LET
    • Bragg peak
  9. Neutron Interactions
    • elastic
    • inelastic

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Radiation Detection and Measurement (15%)

  1. Dosimetry Fundamentals
    • exposure
    • absorbed dose
    • kerma
    • radiation detection (photons, neutrons)
  2. Ionization Chambers
    • general principles and composition
    • ion collection efficiency
    • recombination
    • survey meters
    • pancake chambers
    • thimble chambers
    • well chambers
  3. Dose Measurements
    • general Bragg-Gray theory and principles
    • stopping power ratio principles
  4. Dosimeters
    • photographic
    • TLD
    • basic principles of chemical (FeSO4) dosimeters
    • semiconductors
    • calorimetry
  5. Detectors
    • Geiger-Mueller
    • scintillation
    • proportional
    • PM tubes
  6. Internal Dosimetry
    • gamma and beta radiations
    • effective half-life
    • beta particles
    • mean life

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Biology and Radiobiology (5%)

  1. The Cell
    • basic structure
    • function
    • proliferation
      1. phases of cell cycle
      2. cell cycle time
      3. enzymes
      4. sensitivity
  2. Chromosomes
    • DNA and replication
    • chromosomal aberrations
  3. Basic Genetics
    • genes
    • genetic mutations
  4. Radiation Chemistry
    • direct / indirect actions
    • protectors and sensitizers
  5. Cell Survival Curves
    • basic target and L-Q theories
  6. Dose Response
    • statistical nature of dose-response curves
    • sublethal damage and repair
  7. Acute Radiation Syndrome
    • hematopoietic
    • LD50
    • gastrointestinal
    • latent period
    • CNS syndrome
  8. Radiation Carcinogenesis
    • human data
    • relative and absolute risk models
    • latent period
    • BEIR reports
  9. Radiation Cataractogenesis
    • ocular lens
    • dose response
    • cataracts
    • threshold
  10. Radiation Embryology
    • human and animal data
    • effect of age
    • occupational exposure
    • patients
  11. Risk vs Benefit
    • typical doses
    • relative risks
    • sources of human exposure

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Radiation Protection (15%)

  1. Radiation Protection Units
    • dose equivalent
    • Sievert
    • quality factor
  2. Sources of Human Exposure
    • medical and other sources
    • natural sources
  3. Regulatory Agencies
    • federal
    • state
    • local
  4. Dose Equivalent Limits
    • protection (ALARA)
    • maximum possible dose (MPD)
    • philosophy of radiation
    • radiation protection guides
    • stochastic and non-stochastic considerations
    • occupational and non-occupational exposures
  5. Radioactive Sources
    • radionuclides
    • storage
    • transportation
    • wipe testing
  6. Surveys
    • basic methodology
    • instrumentation
  7. Personnel Monitoring
    • films
    • TLD
    • pocket dosimeters
    • filters
  8. External Radiation Protection
    • time
    • distance
    • shielding
    • WUT
    • basic protection design
  9. Internal Radiation Protection
    • internal radiation hazards
    • contamination
    • assessment of hazards
    • waste management
    • principles of control
  10. Hazards of Non-Ionizing Radiation
    • LASERs
    • microwaves
    • ultrasound
    • magnetic resonance power and energy
    • biological effects

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Statistics Samples, Observations

 sample surveys  random sampling

Frequency Distributions

 histograms  cumulative frequency
 distributions  probability distributions

Mean and Standard Devaitions

 arithmetic and population means  degrees of freedom
 sandard deviations  mean values
 variance  modal values
 coefficient of variation

Normal (or Gaussian) Distributions

 standard errors  sample sizes
 confidence limits

Test of Hypothesis

 null hypothesis  confidence intervals
 statistical significance  chi-square test

Binomial and Poisson Distributions

 relationship to normal distributions  propagation of errors
 applications

Regressions

 linear regression  correlation coefficient
 least squares estimate

References

Glantz, S.A. “Primer of Biostatistics”, McGraw-Hill, 6th Ed., 2002.

Evans, R.D. “The Atomic Nucleus”, Reprint Edition, Krieger, Malabar, Florida, pp 746-818, 1985.

Mould, R.F. “Introductory Medical Statistics”, IOPP, Bristol, 1989.

Tsoulfanaids N. “Measurement and Detection of Radiation”, 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis, 1995.

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Imaging and Other Diagnostic Studies (17%)

Imaging And Other Diagnostic Studies The Photographic Process

 latent image production  film processing and chemistry
 electrostatic imaging -Xerography  photographic emulsions and chemistry

Sensitometry

Characteristic curves

 density  reciprocity failure
 contrast  fog
 latitude  reversal
 gamma  solarization
 energy dependence  effect of processing
 speed conditions

Resolution and Contrast

 modulation transfer function  line spread function
 film contrast  line pairs
 basic principles of MTF & LSF

Screens

 phosphors  resolution
 modification of H & D curves  effect on image quality and dose
 mottle

Noise

 signal to noise ratio  model structured and statistical grids
 scatter

Fluoroscopy

 basic principles of digital systems  basic principles of luminescence

Image Intensification

 design  brightness
 flux gain and minification  dose

Radiography

 general equipment and imaging considerations

Basic principles of

 angiography  CT
 tomography  mammography

Image Formation

 subject contrast as related to density, atomic number, and energy spectrum

Physics of Nuclear Medicine

Basic concepts

 applications  uptake
 scanning  cameras
 emission tomography  basic performance checks
 instrumentation and radio nuclides  hazards

Physics of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (and Spectroscopy)

Basic concepts

 NMR  instrumentation
 relaxation times  application
 hazards  chemical shifts

Physics of Clinical ultrasound

Basic principles

 propagation of sound  generation and detection
 interactions in tissues  modes of operation
 hazards  Doppler techniques

References

American College of Radiology, “Mammography Quality Control Manual,” ACR, 1999.

Blater S. “Interventional Fluoroscopy: Physics, Technology & Safety”, Wiley-Liss, 2001.

Bushberg J.T., et al. “The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging,” 2nd Ed. Lippencott Williams & Wilkins, 2002.

Curry, T.S.et al. “Christensen’s Introduction to the Physics of Diagnostic Radiology”, 4th Ed., Lea & Febiger, 1990.

Dendy PP & Heaton B. “Physics for Diagnostic Radiology”, 2nd Edition. Insitute of Physics, 1999.

Johns, H.E. and Cunningham, J.R. “The Physics of Radiology,” 4th Ed., Thomas, Springfield, 1983.

Papp J. “Quality Management in the Imaging Sciences,” 3rd Edition. Mosby/Elsevier, 2006.

Waggener, R.G., Kereiakes, J.G., and Shalek, R.J. “Handbook of Medical Physics, Volume II”, CRC Press, Boca Raton, 1984.

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Principles of Radiation Therapy (15%)

  1. Therapy Photons
    • depth dose distribution
    • percent depth dose
    • parameters affecting depth dose
    • scatter
    • isodose curves
    • phantoms
  2. Therapy Particles
    • electrons
      1. depth dose and isodose distributions
    • heavy particles
      1. protons
      2. neutrons
      3. pions
      4. stripped nuclei
      5. Bragg peak
  3. Brachytherapy
    • radioactive sources
    • sealed sources
    • activity
    • exposure rate constant
    • dose calculation principles
  4. Hyperthermia
    • basic principles of application and monitoring

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Medical Electronics basic Principles of DC Circuits

 potential difference  batteries
 current  power
 Ohm’s Law  series and parallel circuits
 resistance  Kirchoff’s Laws
 voltage dividers

Basic Principles of AC Circuits

 sinusoidal waveforms  inductive reactance
 capacitors  RL circuits
 capacitance  transformers
 RC circuits  impedance matching
 capcitative reactance  resonant circuits
 rise and fall times  complex wave forms
 Fourier analysis  inductors and inductance

Measuring Instruments

 moving-coil meters  Wheatstone bridge
 moving iron meters  AC bridges
 dynamometers  potentiometers
 AC and DC measurements  capacitance and inductance meters
 RMS values  practical applications
 digital voltmeters and multimeters  analog multimeters
 electrometers

Oscilloscopes

 triggering  basic principles and components
 storage and sampling scopes  dual beam/ dual trace scopes

Diodes

 p-n junction  Zener diodes
 RC filters  vaccuum and semiconductor diodes
 half-wave and full-wave rectification  voltage doubler rectification

Transistors

 bipolar junction  field-effect transistor (FET)
 applications

Amplifier Circuits

 types and applications  basic principles and properties

OP-AMPS

 properties  inout and output impedance
 gain  applications

Digital Basics

 basic principles  Boolean algebra
 logic gates  flip flops
 gate construction  numbering systems
 positive/negative logic  digital displays

Digital Circuitry

 counters and registers  D/A and A/D conversions
 voltage to frequency conversions

Noise

 origins  reduction techniques

Grounding and Shielding

 principles and methods  coax cables
 RF shielding  isolation
 guard shields  ground loops

References

Carr J.J., “Introduction to Biomedical Equipment Technology,” 4th Edition, Prentice-Hall Career & Technology, 2000.

Khandpur R.S., “Biomedical Instrumentation: Technology and Applications”, McGraw-Hill, 2005.

Tsoulfanaids N. “Measurement and Detection of Radiation”, 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis, 1995.

Webster J.G. , “Medical Instrumentation: Application and Design”, John Wiley & Sons, 1998.

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Medical Applications of Lasers Basic Theories

 stimulated emission  metastable atomic states

Types

 Nd-YAG  He-Ne alignment device
 argon  ruby
 krypton  CO2

Uses

 retinal detachment  surgery
 endobronchial stenosis  dermatology
 photocoagulation  laser angioplasty

Safety

 types of injuries  standards
 protection

References

Niemz M.H., “Laser-Tissue Interactions: Fundamentals and Applications “, Springer-Verlag, 2004.

Vij D.R. & Mahesh K. “Medical Applications of Lasers “, Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2002.

Webster J.G. , “Medical Instrumentation: Application and Design”, John Wiley & Sons, 1998.

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Anatomy, Physiology, and Medical Science (7%)

  1. Organization Of The Human Body
    • anatomical nomenclature
    • anatomical position
    • body cavities, their subdivisions and contents
    • body planes
    • directional terms
    • regional names
  2. Levels of Structural Organization
    • systems
    • organs
    • tissue
    • cellular
    • chemical
  3. Principal Systems of the Human Body
    • structure
    • function
    • pathology
    • medical terminology
    • principal methods of diagnosis and therapy
  4. Skeletal, Muscular, and Integumentary Systems
    • axial and appendicular skeletons
    • skeletal tissue
    • muscular systems
    • muscle tissue
    • articulations
    • skin and its derivatives
  5. Nervous System
    • spinal cord and nerves
    • nervous tissue
    • nerve impulse
    • autonomic nervous systems
    • brain and its principal parts
    • sensory and motor systems
    • sensory system – ear
      1. structure of the outer, middle, and inner ear
      2. physiology of hearing, equilibrium
    • sensory system – eye
      1. structure of the eyeball
      2. visual physiology
  6. Endocrine System
    • endocrine glands: identity, location, function
    • other endocrine tissues
    • mechanism of hormonal action
  7. Cardiovascular System
    • Blood
      1. physical characteristics
      2. functions
      3. components
      4. hemostasis
      5. interstitial fluid and lymph
    • Vessels
      1. arteries
      2. veins
      3. capillaries
      4. lymph
    • the Heart
      1. structure and components
        • pericardium
        • chambers
        • wall
        • vessels
        • valves
      2. functions and physiology
        • cardiac cycles
        • cardiac output
        • conduction systems
  8. Lymphatic System
    • lymphatic vessels
    • lymphatic tissue
    • immunity
    • reticuloendothelial system
    • non-specific resistance to disease
  9. Respiratory System
    • Organs
      1. nose
      2. pharynx
      3. larynx
      4. trachea
      5. bronchea
      6. lungs
    • Respiration and its Control
      1. pulmonary ventilation air volumes and capacities
      2. gas exchange and transport
  10. Digestive System
    • Organs
      1. Mouth
        • tongue
        • salivary glands
        • teeth
      2. Pharynx and Esophagus
        • structures
        • deglutition
      3. Stomach
        • structures
        • mixing and emptying actions
        • gastric secretions and absorptions
      4. Pancreas
      5. Gall Bladder
      6. Liver
      7. Small and Large Intestines
      8. Rectum and Anus
    • Metabolism
      1. anabolism and catabolism enzymes
      2. carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins
      3. body heat and temperature regulations
  11. Urinary System
    • external and internal anatomy: male and female
      1. Kidneys
      2. Ureters
      3. Urethra
      4. Bladder
    • blood and nerve supply
    • nephrons
    • urine formation
    • urine elimination
  12. Reproductive System
    • the breast
      1. structure
      2. function of mammary glands
      3. pathology
    • the male reproductive system
      1. anatomy & physiology
      2. spermatogenesis
    • the female reproductive system
      1. anatomy & physiology
      2. ovarian and menstrual cycles
    • pregnancy
      1. fertilization and implantation
      2. embryonic development
      3. fetal growth and development
      4. birth
  13. Bodily Fluids
    • Compartments
    • Compositions
    • Balance
      1. Electrolyte balance
      2. acid/base balance
    • Fluid movements
  14. Human Genetics
    • chromosomes
    • inheritance of traits
    • dominant and recessive genes
    • meiosis
  15. Presentation in Imaging: anatomic (physical) and chemical
      1. conventional radiography
      2. transverse and tomographic radiography
      3. computed tomography
      4. radiopharmaceuticals
      5. magnetic resonance imaging
      6. ultrasound

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Computers (6%)

      1. Fundamentals of Computers
        • analog vs digital
        • computer hardware
          1. CPU
          2. speed
          3. memory
            • bits, bytes
            • RAM
            • ROM
          4. bus
        • input devices
          1. keyboards
          2. digital pad
          3. joystick
          4. light pen
          5. trackball
          6. voice control
          7. mouse
          8. touch screen
        • peripheral devices
        • storage devices
          1. floppy disks
          2. hard disks
          3. optical disks
          4. CDs
          5. USB / thumb drives
        • micro vs mini vs mainframe computers

Hardware

 CPU  speed
 capacity  bus

Memory

 bits, bytes  RAM
 ROM

Storage Devices

 floppy disks  hard disks
 optical disks

Input Devices

 keyboards  digital pad
 joystick  light pen
 trackball  voice control
 mouse  touch screen

Printers

 laser  thermal
 ink jet  color

Sofware

 operating systems  single user
 time sharing  batch processing
 programming basics

Languages

 Assembly  C
 COBOL  FORTRAN
 BASIC  Pascal

Applications

 nuclear medicine  ultrasound
 diagnostic radiology  therapy
 CT  MRI
 PAC’s  health physics

References

Blater S. “Interventional Fluoroscopy: Physics, Technology & Safety”, Wiley-Liss, 2001.

Bushberg J.T., et al. “The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging,” 2nd Ed. Lippencott Williams & Wilkins, 2002.

Joos I., “Introduction to Computers for Healthcare Professionals”, 4th Edition, Jones and Bartlett Publishers, Inc., 2005.

Olifer N, Olifer V. “Computer Networks: Principles, Technologies and Protocols for Network Design”, John Wiley & Sons, 2006.

Umbaugh S.E., “Computer Imaging: Digital Image Analysis and Processing”, CRC, 2005.

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Appendix

of Types A, B, K, and S.

TYPE A

The average annual collective dose equivalent in mSv from natural sources (excluding radon) to the population in the USA is about:
A. 0.1
B. 0.5
C. 1.0
D. 2.0
E. 3.0

TYPE B

Match the property (1-4) with the appropriate particle (A-E):
A. Proton
B. Neutron
C. Electron
D. Neutrino
E. Pion

(B) 1. Has the greatest mass
(E) 2. Has rest mass of 140 MeV
(B) 3. Has no charge and rest mass of 939 MeV
(A) 4. Electron capture reduces the number of these in the nucleus

TYPE K

Within hours of receiving a nearly lethal whole body dose of radiation an individual is likely to experience acute radiation syndrome symptoms which include:

1. nausea and diarrhea
2. convulsive seizures
3. severe fatigue
4. loss of hair

A. (1,2,3 only)
B. (1,3 only)
C. (2,4 only)
D. (4 only)
E. (All are correct)

TYPE S

A variable X is determined by making a series of measurements of two independent variables Y and Z with variances 10 and 5 and mean values 100 and 50, respectively.

1. If X=Y+Z, then the variance of X is:
A. 5
B. 7.5
C. 15
D. 75
E. 125

2. If X=Y-Z, then the variance of X is:
A. 5
B. 7.5
C. 15
D. 75
E. 125

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Suggested References

Anatomy & Physiology, Medical Terminology

  • Belanger AC, Vascular Anatomy and Physiology: An Introductory Text. Davies Publishing, 1990. ISBN: 9780941022118
  • Butler P, Mitchell AWM, Healy, JC, Applied Radiological Anatomy, 2nd edition. Cambridge University Press, 2012. ISBN: 9780521766661
  • Ellis H, Mahadevan, V. Clinical Anatomy for Students and Junior Doctors, 13th edition. Wiley-Blackwell Publishers, 2013. ISBN : 9781118373774
  • Marieb EN, Hoehn K, Human Anatomy & Physiology, 10th Edition, Pearson, 2015. ISBN: 9780321927040

Rice J., “Medical Terminology with Human Anatomy”, 5th Edition, Prentice Hall, 2004.

Bentel G.C. “Radiation Therapy Planning”, 2nd Edition, 1996.

Johns, H.E. and Cunningham, J.R. “The Physics of Radiology,” 4th Ed., Thomas, Springfield, 1983.

Khan, F.M. “The Physics of Radiation Therapy,” 3rd Edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2003.

Kerieakes, J.F., Elson, H.R., and Born, C.G. “Radiation Oncology Physics – 1986″, AAPM Monograph No. 15, AIP, New York, 1987.

Attix, F.H. “Introduction to Radiological Physics and Radiation Dosimetry”, John Wiley & Sons, 1986.

Bushberg J.T., et al. “The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging,” 2nd Ed. Lippencott Williams & Wilkins, 2002.

Dendy PP & Heaton B. “Physics for Diagnostic Radiology”, 2nd Edition. Insitute of Physics, 1999.

Johns, H.E. and Cunningham, J.R. “The Physics of Radiology,” 4th Ed., Thomas, Springfield, 1983.

Knoll G.F. “Radiation Detection and Measurement,” 3rd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, 2000.

Podgorsak, E.B. “Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists”, Springer, 2006.

Turner, J.E. “Atoms, Radiation and Radiation Protection”, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, 1995.

Tsoulfanaids N. “Measurement and Detection of Radiation”, 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis, 1995.
Blater S. “Interventional Fluoroscopy: Physics, Technology & Safety”, Wiley-Liss, 2001.

Bushong, S.C. “Radiologic Science For Technologists,” 3rd Ed., Mosby, ST. Louis, 1984.

Cember H. “Introduction to Health Physics”, 3rd Edition. McGraw-Hill, 1996.

Dendy PP & Heaton B. “Physics for Diagnostic Radiology”, 2nd Edition. Insitute of Physics, 1999.

Johns, H.E. and Cunningham, J.R. “The Physics of Radiology,” 4th Ed., Thomas, Springfield, 1983.

Khan, F.M. “The Physics of Radiation Therapy,” 3rd Edition. Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2003.

NCRP Report No. 119, ” A Practical Guide to the Determination of Human Exposure to Radiofrequency Fields” (1993).

NCRP Report No. 122, “Use of Personal Monitors to Estimate Effective Dose Equivalent and Effective Dose to Workers For External Exposure to Low-LET Radiation” (1995)

NCRP Report No. 124, “Sources and Magnitude of Occupational and Public Exposures from Nuclear Medicine Procedures” (1996)

NCRP Report No. 125, “Deposition, Retention and Dosimetry of Inhaled Radioactive Substances” (1997)

NCRP Report No. 126, “Uncertainties in Fatal Cancer Risk Estimates Used in Radiation Protection” (1997)

NCRP Report No. 128, “Radionuclide Exposure of the Embryo/Fetus” (1998)

NCRP Report No. 133, “Radiation Protection for Procedures Performed Outside the Radiology Department” (2000)

NCRP Report No. 134, “Operational Radiation Safety Training” (2000)

NCRP Report No. 136, “Evaluation of the Linear-Nonthreshold Dose-Response Model for Ionizing Radiation” (2001)

NCRP Report No. 140, “Exposure Criteria for Medical Diagnostic Ultrasound” (2002)

NCRP Report No. 144, “Radiation Protection for Particle Accelerator Facilities” (2003)Bushberg J.T., et al. “The Essential Physics of Medical Imaging,” 2nd Ed. Lippencott Williams & Wilkins, 2002.

NCRP Report No. 145, “Radiation Protection in Dentistry” (2003)

NCRP Report No. 147, “Structural Shielding Design for Medical X-Ray Imaging Facilities” (2004)

NCRP Report No. 149, “A Guide to Mammography and Other Breast Imaging Procedures” (2004)

NCRP Report No.151, ” Structural Shielding Design and Evaluation for Megavoltage X- and Gamma-Ray Radiotherapy Facilities” (2005).

Tsoulfanaids N. “Measurement and Detection of Radiation”, 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis, 1995.

Turner, J.E. “Atoms, Radiation and Radiation Protection”, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, 1995.

Hall, E.J. “Radiobiology For the Radiobiologist,” 6th Edition, Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, 2005.

Johns, H.E. and Cunningham, J.R. “The Physics of Radiology,” 4th Ed., Thomas, Springfield, 1983.

Steel G.G. “Basic Clinical Radiobiology”, Arnold (Hodder Headline Group), 2002.

Turner, J.E. “Atoms, Radiation and Radiation Protection”, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, 1995.

Attix, F.H. “Introduction to Radiological Physics and Radiation Dosimetry”, John Wiley & Sons, 1986.

Johns, H.E. and Cunningham, J.R. “The Physics of Radiology,” 4th Ed., Thomas, Springfield, 1983.

Knoll G.F. “Radiation Detection and Measurement,” 3rd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, 2000.

Podgorsak, E.B. “Radiation Physics for Medical Physicists”, Springer, 2006.

Tsoulfanaids N. “Measurement and Detection of Radiation”, 2nd Edition, Taylor & Francis, 1995.

Turner, J.E. “Atoms, Radiation and Radiation Protection”, 2nd Edition. John Wiley & Sons, 1995.